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How to create good OpenPGP keys

The OpenPGP standard and the most popular open source program that implements it, GnuPG, have been well tested and widely deployed over the last decades. At least for the time being they are considered to be cryptographically unbroken tools for encrypting and verifying messages and other data.

photo: keys

Due to the lack of easy-to-use tools and integrated user interfaces, large scale use of OpenPGP, in for example encrypting emails, hasn’t happened. There are however some new interesting efforts like EnigmailMailPile, Mailvelope and End-to-end that might change the game. There are also new promising tools in the area of key management (establishing trust between parties) like Gnome Keysign and

Despite the PGP’s failure to solve email encryption globally, OpenPGP has been very successful in other areas. For example it is the de-facto tool for signing digital data. If you download a software package online, and want to verify that the package you have on your computer is actually the same package as released by the original author (and not a tampered one), you can use the OpenPGP signature of the author to verify authenticity. Also, even though it is not easy enough for day-to-day usage, if a person wants to send a message to another person and they want to send it encrypted, using OpenPGP is still the only solution for doing it. Alternative messaging channels like Hangouts or Telegram are just not enough widely used, so email prevails – and for email OpenPGP is the best encryption tool.

How to install GnuPG?

Installing GnuPG is easy. Just use the software manager of your Linux distro to install it, or download the installation package for Mac OS X via

There are two generations of GnuPG, the 2.x series and the 1.4.x series. For compatibility reasons it is still advisable to use the 1.4.x versions.

How to create keys?

Without you own key you can only send encrypted data or verify the signature of other users. In order to be able to receive encrypted data or to sign some data yourself, you need to create a key pair for yourself. The key pair consists for two keys:

  • a secret key you shall protect and which is the only key that can be used to decrypt data sent to you or to make signatures
  • a public key which you publish and which others use to encrypt data for you or use to verify your signatures

Before you generate your keys, you need to edit your gpg configuration file to make sure the strongest algorithms are used instead of the default options in GnuPG. If you are using a very recent version of GnuPG it might already have better defaults.

For brevity, we only provide the command line instructions here. Edit the config file by running for example nano ~/.gnupg/gpg.conf and adding the algorithm settings:

personal-digest-preferences SHA512
cert-digest-algo SHA512
default-preference-list SHA512 SHA384 SHA256 SHA224 AES256 AES192 AES CAST5 ZLIB BZIP2 ZIP Uncompressed

If the file does not exist, just run gpg and press Ctrl-C to cancel. This will create the configuration directory and file automatically.

Once done with that preperation, actually generate the key by running gpg --gen-key. On newer GnuGP versions the syntax is gpg --full-generate-key.

For key type select “(1) RSA and RSA (default)“. RSA is the preferred algorithm nowadays and this option also automatically creates a subkey for encryption, something that might be useful later but which you don’t immediately need to learn about.

As the key size enter “4096” as 2048 bit keys are not considered strong enough anymore.

A good value for expiration is 3 years, so enter “3y” when asked for how long the key should be valid. Don’t worry – you don’t have to create a new key again. You can some day update your key expiry date, even after it expired. Having keys that never expires is bad practice. Old never-expiring keys might come back haunting you some day.

For the name and email choose your real name and real email. OpenPGP is not an anonymity tool, but a tool to encrypt to and verify signatures of other users. Other people will be evaluating if a key is really yours, so having a false name would be confusing.

When GnuPG asks for a comment, don’t enter anything. Comments are unnecessary and sometimes simply confusing, so avoid making one.

The last step is to define a passphrase. Follow the guidelines of our password best practices article and choose a complex yet easy to remember password, and make sure you never forget it.

$ gpg --gen-key 
gpg (GnuPG) 1.4.10; Copyright (C) 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Please select what kind of key you want:
   (1) RSA and RSA (default)
   (2) DSA and Elgamal
   (3) DSA (sign only)
   (4) RSA (sign only)
Your selection? 1
RSA keys may be between 1024 and 4096 bits long.
What keysize do you want? (2048) 4096
Requested keysize is 4096 bits
Please specify how long the key should be valid.
         0 = key does not expire
        = key expires in n days
      w = key expires in n weeks
      m = key expires in n months
      y = key expires in n years
Key is valid for? (0) 3y
Key expires at Mon 05 Mar 2018 02:39:23 PM EET
Is this correct? (y/N) y

You need a user ID to identify your key; the software constructs the user ID
from the Real Name, Comment and Email Address in this form:
    "Heinrich Heine (Der Dichter) <>"

Real name: Lisa Simpson
Email address:
You selected this USER-ID:
    "Lisa Simpson <>"

Change (N)ame, (C)omment, (E)mail or (O)kay/(Q)uit? O
You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.

We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform
some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the
disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number
generator a better chance to gain enough entropy.

Not enough random bytes available.  Please do some other work to give
the OS a chance to collect more entropy! (Need 284 more bytes)

gpg: key 3E44A531 marked as ultimately trusted
public and secret key created and signed.

gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model
gpg: depth: 0  valid:   1  signed:   0  trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u
gpg: next trustdb check due at 2018-03-05
pub   4096R/3E44A531 2015-03-06 [expires: 2018-03-05]
      Key fingerprint = 4C63 2BAB 4562 5E09 392F  DAA4 C6E4 158A 3E44 A531
uid                  Lisa Simpson <>
sub   4096R/75BB2DC6 2015-03-06 [expires: 2018-03-05]


At this stage you are done and can start using your new key. For different usages of OpenPGP you need to consult other documentation or install software that makes it easy. All software that use OpenPGP will automatically detect your ~/.gnupg directory in your home folder and use the keys from there.

Store securely

Make sure you home directory is encrypted, or maybe even your whole hard drive. On Linux it is easy with eCryptfs or LUKS/dm-crypt. If your hard drive is stolen or your keys leak in some other way, the thief can decrypt all your data and impersonate you by signing things digitally with your key.

Also if you don’t make regular backups of your home directory, you really should start doing it now so that you don’t lose your key or any other data either.

Additional identities (emails)

If you want to add more email addresses in the key gpg --edit-key 12345678 and in the prompt enter command adduid, which will start the dialog for adding another name and email on your key.

More guides

Encryption, and in particular secure unbreakable encryption is really hard. Good tools can hide away the complexity, but unfortunately modern tools and operating systems don’t have these features fully integrated yet. Users need to learn some of the technical stuff to be able to use different tools themselves.

Because OpenPGP is difficult to use, the net is full of lots of different guides. Unfortunately most of them are outdated or have errors. Here are a few guides we can recommend for futher reading:

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